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1995 SURVEY OF DOCTORATE RECIPIENTS


Conducted by the National Research Council for The National Science Foundation

We solicit this information under the authority of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. Your response is entirely voluntary and failure to provide some or all the requested information will not in any way adversely affect you. Actual time to complete the questionnaire may vary depending on your circumstances. On the average, it will take about 25 minutes to complete the questionnaire. If you have any comments on the time required for this survey, please send them to Herman Fleming, Division of Contracts, Policy and Oversight, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230; or to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project 3145-0020, Washington, DC 20503.

OMB NO: 3145-0020
APPROVAL EXPIRES: 3/31/97
Note: The format of this survey instrument has been altered slightly to reduced download time.

INSTRUCTIONS
Thank you for taking the time to complete this questionnaire. Directions for filling it out are provided with each question. Because not all questions will apply to everyone, you may be asked to skip certain questions.

  • In order to get comparable data, we will be asking you to refer to the week of April 15, 1995 (e.g., April 9-15, 1995) when answering most questions
  • Follow all "SKIP" instructions AFTER marking a box. If no "SKIP" instruction is provided, you should continue to the NEXT question
  • Either a pen or pencil may be used
  • When answering questions that require marking a box, please use an "X"
  • If you need to change an answer, please make sure that your old answer is either completely erased or clearly crossed out
Thanks again for your help, we really appreciate it.

PART A - Employment Status During the Week of April 9-15, 1995

A1.
Were you working for pay (or profit) during the week of April 15, 1995? This includes a postdoctoral appointment, being self-employed or temporarily absent from a job (e.g., illness, vacation or parental leave), even if unpaid.
1 [ ] Yes (SKIP to A7, page 2)
2 [ ] No

A2.
(IF NO) Did you look for work at any time during the four weeks preceding April 15, 1995 (that is, any time between March 19 and April 15, 1995)?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

A3.
What were your reasons for not working during the week of April 15?
Mark (X) all that apply
1 [ ] Retired, Year Retired: 19 |___|___|
2 [ ] On layoff from a job
3 [ ] Student
4 [ ] Family responsibilities
5 [ ] Chronic illness or permanent disability
6 [ ] Suitable job not available
7 [ ] Did not need or want to work
8 [ ] Other - Specify: ___________________________________________

A4.
Prior to the week of April 15, 1995, when did you last work for pay (or profit)?
IF NEVER WORKED FOR PAY (OR PROFIT), MARK (X) IN THIS BOX 0 [ ] AND SKIP TO PART D, PAGE 13
LAST WORKED
Month: |___|___| Year: 19 |___|___|

A5.
What kind of work were you doing on this last job--that is, what was your occupation? Please be as specific as possible, including any area of specialization.
Example: College professor - Electrical engineering
________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

A6.
Using the JOB CATEGORIES LIST (pages 16-17), choose the code that BEST describes the work you were doing on this last job.
CODE |__|__|__| SKIP to A49, page 8

A7.
(IF WORKED DURING WEEK OF APRIL 15TH) Counting all jobs held during the week of April 15, 1995, did you USUALLY work...
1 [ ] A total of 35 or more hours per week (SKIP to A10)
2 [ ] Fewer than 35 hours per week

A8.
(IF FEWER THAN 35 HOURS) During the week of April 15, did you want to work a full-time work week of 35 or more hours?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

A9.
What were your reasons for working a part-time work week (i.e., less than 35 hours) during the week of April 15?
Mark (X) all that apply
1 [ ] Retired or semi-retired, Year: 19 |___|___| (SKIP to A11)
2 [ ] Student (SKIP to A11)
3 [ ] Family responsibilities (SKIP to A11)
4 [ ] Chronic illness or permanent disability (SKIP to A11)
5 [ ] Suitable full-time work week job not available (SKIP to A11)
6 [ ] Did not need or want to work full-time (SKIP to A11)
7 [ ] Other - Specify:___________________________ (SKIP to A11)

A10.
(IF 35 OR MORE HOURS) Although you were working during the week of April 15, had you previously RETIRED from any position?
Examples of retirement include mandatory retirement, early retirement, or voluntary retirement
1 [ ] Yes, Year Retired: 19___ ___
2 [ ] No

Please answer the next series of questions for your PRINCIPAL job held during the week of April 15, 1995. A second job, if held, will be covered later.

A11.
Who was your principal employer during the week of April 15, 1995?
IF MORE THAN ONE JOB: Record employer for whom you worked the most hours that week
IF EMPLOYER HAD MORE THAN ONE LOCATION: Record location where you usually worked
Employer Name: ______________________________________
City/Town: __________________________________________
State/Foreign Country: _________________________________
ZIP Code: ___________________________________________

A12.
Counting all locations where this employer operates, how many people work for your principal employer? Your best estimate is fine.
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Under 10 employees
2 [ ] 10-24 employees
3 [ ] 25-99 employees
4 [ ] 100-499 employees
5 [ ] 500-999 employees
6 [ ] 1,000-4,999 employees
7 [ ] 5,000+ employees

A13.
Was your principal employer during the week of April 15 . . .
IF EMPLOYER WAS A SCHOOL: Mark (X) the type of organizational charter (e.g., mark "State government" for state schools, most private schools are "private not-for-profit")
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] A PRIVATE FOR-PROFIT company, business or individual, working for wages, salary or commissions
2 [ ] A PRIVATE NOT-FOR-PROFIT, tax exempt, or charitable organization
3 [ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm
4 [ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm
5 [ ] Local GOVERNMENT (city, county, etc.)
6 [ ] State GOVERNMENT
7 [ ] U.S. military service, active duty or Commissioned Corps (e.g., USPHS, NOAA)
8 [ ] U.S. GOVERNMENT (civilian employee)
9 [ ] Other - Specify: ______________________________

A14.
Was your principal employer an educational institution?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to A18)

A15.
(IF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION) Was this educational institution . . .
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] A preschool, elementary, or middle school or system (SKIP to A18)
2 [ ] A secondary school or system (SKIP to A18)
3 [ ] A 2-year college, junior college, or technical institute
4 [ ] A 4-year college or university, other than a medical school
5 [ ] A medical school (including university-affiliated hospital or medical center)
6 [ ] A university-affiliated research institute
7 [ ] Other - Specify: _______________________________________

A16.
What was your faculty rank?
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Not applicable at this institution
2 [ ] Not applicable for my position
3 [ ] Professor
4 [ ] Associate Professor
5 [ ] Assistant Professor
6 [ ] Instructor
7 [ ] Lecturer
8 [ ] Adjunct Faculty
9 [ ] Other - Specify: _______________________________________

A17.
What was your tenure status?
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Not applicable: no tenure system at this institution
2 [ ] Not applicable: no tenure system for my position
3 [ ] Tenured
4 [ ] On tenure track but not tenured
5 [ ] Not on tenure track

A18.
What kind of work were you doing on your principal job held during the week of April 15, 1995--that is, what was your occupation?
Please be as specific as possible, including any area of specialization.
Example: College professor - Electrical engineering
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

A19.
Using the JOB CATEGORIES LIST (pages 16-17), choose the code that BEST describes the work you were doing on your principal job during the week of April 15.
CODE |___|___|___|
NOTE - Job codes go from 010 to 500

A20.
Did you record job code "141" (manager, executive, or administrator) in A19?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to A22)

A21.
(IF YES) Did your duties on this job require the technical expertise of a bachelor's degree or higher in . . .
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. Engineering, computer science, math, or the natural sciences
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. The social sciences
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. Some other field (for example, health or business) - Specify: _______________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

A22.
During what month and year did you start this job, (that is, your principal job held during the week of April 15, 1995)?
JOB STARTED
Month: |___|___| Year: 19 |___|___|

A23.
As of the week of April 15, were you licensed or certified in your occupation?
Do NOT include academic degrees (e.g., BA, MA, PhD)
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

A24.
Thinking about the relationship between your work and your education, to what extent was your work on your principal job held during the week of April 15 related to your first doctoral degree awarded in the U.S.? Was it...
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Closely related (SKIP to A27, page 5)
2 [ ] Somewhat related (SKIP to A27, page 5)
3 [ ] Not related

A25.
(IF NOT RELATED) Did these factors influence your decision to work in an area OUTSIDE THE FIELD OF YOUR FIRST U.S. DOCTORAL DEGREE?
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. Pay, promotion opportunities
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. Working conditions (hours, equipment, working environment)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. Job location
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

4. Change in career or professional interests
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

5. Family-related reasons (children, spouse's job moved)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

6. Job in highest degree field not available
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

7. Other reason - Specify: ____________________________________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

A26.
Which TWO factors in A25 represents your MOST important reasons for working in an area outside of your first U.S. doctoral degree? Enter number of appropriate REASON from A25 above.
1. __________ MOST important reason
2. __________ SECOND MOST important reason (Enter "0" if no second most)

A27.
The next question is about your work activities on your principal job. Which of the following work activities occupied 10 percent or more of your time during a TYPICAL work week on this job?
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. Accounting, finance, contracts
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. Applied research - study directed toward gaining scientific knowledge to meet a recognized need
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. Basic research - study directed toward gaining scientific knowledge primarily for its own sake
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

4. Computer applications, programming, systems development
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

5. Development - using knowledge gained from research for the production of materials, devices
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

6. Design of equipment, processes, structures, models
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

7. Employee relations – including recruiting, personnel development, training
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

8. Managing and supervising
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

9. Production, operations, maintenance (e.g., truck driving, machine tooling, auto/machine repairing)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

10. Professional services (health care, counseling, financial services, legal services, etc.)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

11. Sales, purchasing, marketing, customer service, public relations
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

12. Quality or productivity management
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

13. Teaching
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

14. Other – Specify: ____________________________________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

A28.
On which TWO activities in A27, did you work the MOST hours during a typical week on this job?
Enter number of appropriate ACTIVITY from A27 above.
1. _________ Activity MOST hours
2. _________ Activity SECOND MOST hours (Enter "0" if no second most)

A29.
In A28, did you record "2" or "3" or "5" or "6" (applied/basic research or development/design)?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to A31)

A30.
(IF YES) In what field was your research-related work being conducted?
Field: ________________________________________________________

A31.
During a typical week on this job, in which, if any, of the following areas or technologies, were you working?
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. Flexible manufacturing, robotics
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. Advanced materials
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. Biotechnology
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

4. Micro or opto-electronics, Semiconductor devices
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

5. High performance computing
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

6. Software producibility
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

7. Sensor and signal processing
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

A32.
Since April 1990, how many . . .
IF NONE, enter "0"
1. Papers have you authored or co-authored for presentation at regional, national or international conferences? (Do not count presentations of the same work more than once) _______ (Number)
2. Articles that you have authored or co-authored have been accepted for publication in a refereed professional journal? _______ (Number)

A33.
Since April 1990, have you been named as an inventor on any application for a U.S. patent?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to A35)

A34.
(IF YES) Since April 1990 . . .
1. How many applications for U.S. patents have named you as inventor? _______ (Number)
2. How many U.S. patents have been granted to you as an inventor? _______ (Number)
3. How many of the patents recorded as GRANTED (recorded in category 2 above) have resulted in commercialized products or processes or have been licensed? _______ (Number)

A35.
Did you supervise the work of others as part of your principal job held during the week of April 15, 1995?
Answer "YES" if you assigned duties to workers AND recommended or initiated personnel actions such as hiring, firing, or promoting
TEACHERS: Do NOT count students
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to A37)

A36.
(IF YES) How many people did you typically . . .
IF NONE, enter "0"
1. supervise DIRECTLY? __________ (Number Supervised)
2. supervise through subordinate supervisors? __________ (Number Supervised)

A37.
Before deductions, what was your basic ANNUAL salary on this job as of the week of April 15, 1995? [Do NOT include bonuses, overtime, or additional compensation for summertime teaching or research]
IF NOT SALARIED: Please estimate your earned income, excluding business expenses
$_____________________________.00
Basic Annual Salary/Earned Income

A38.
During a typical week on this job, how many hours did you usually work?
Number of Hours Per Week _____

A39.
Including paid vacation and paid sick leave, upon how many weeks per year was your salary based?
Number of Weeks Per Year __________

A40.
During the week of April 15, 1995, was any of your work on this job supported by CONTRACTS OR GRANTS from the U.S. government?
FEDERAL EMPLOYEES: Please answer "No"
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to A42, page 7)
3 [ ] Don't Know (SKIP to A42, page 7)

A41.
(IF YES) Which Federal agencies or departments were supporting your work?
Mark (X) all that apply
1 [ ] Agency for International Development (AID)
2 [ ] Agriculture Department
3 [ ] Commerce Department
4 [ ] Defense Department (DOD)
5 [ ] Department of Education (include NCES, OERI, FIPSE, FIRST)
6 [ ] Energy Department (DOE)
7 [ ] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
8 [ ] Health and Human Services Department (EXCLUDING NIH)
9 [ ] Interior Department
10 [ ] National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
11 [ ] National Institutes of Health (NIH)
12 [ ] National Science Foundation (NSF)
13 [ ] Transportation Department (DOT)
14 [ ] Other - Specify: ____________________________
15 [ ] DON'T KNOW SOURCE AGENCY

The following 3 questions provide information for the U.S. Department of Energy

A42.
From the following list of selected areas, indicate the ONE area, if any, to which you devoted the MOST hours during a typical week on this job.
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Energy or Fuel
2 [ ] Environment (SKIP to A45)
3 [ ] Food or Agriculture (SKIP to A45)
4 [ ] Health or Safety (SKIP to A45)
5 [ ] National Defense (SKIP to A45)
6 [ ] Transportation (SKIP to A45)
7 [ ] NONE OF THE ABOVE (SKIP to A45)

A43.
(IF ENERGY OR FUEL) From the following list, indicate the ONE ENERGY SOURCE that involved the largest proportion of your energy-related work during the past year.
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Coal
2 [ ] Petroleum and natural gas
3 [ ] Nuclear fission
4 [ ] Nuclear fusion
5 [ ] Hydroenergy
6 [ ] Other Renewables (such as solar, biomass, wind, geothermal)
7 [ ] Other energy source - Specify:

A44.
From the following list, indicate the ONE ENERGY-RELATED ACTIVITY that involved the largest proportion of your energy-related work during the past year.
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Exploration and extraction
2 [ ] Manufacture of energy-related equipment
3 [ ] Fuel processing (include refining and enriching)
4 [ ] Electric power generation and transmission
5 [ ] Transportation and distribution of fuel
6 [ ] Waste management or decommissioning
7 [ ] Conservation, utilization, management, or storage of energy or fuel
8 [ ] Environment, health, and safety
9 [ ] Other energy-related activity - Specify: ________________________

A45.
During the week of April 15, 1995, were you working for pay (or profit) at a second job (or business), including part-time, evening, or weekend work?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to A49, page 8)

A46.
(IF YES) What kind of work were you doing at your second job during the week of April 15--that is, what was your occupation? Please be as specific as possible, including any area of specialization.
Example: College professor - Electrical engineering
IF YOU HAD MORE THAN TWO JOBS that week answer for the job where you worked the second most hours
____________________________________________________

A47.
Using the JOB CATEGORIES LIST (pages 16-17) choose the code that BEST describes the work you were doing on your second job during the week of April 15.
CODE |___|___|___|

A48.
To what extent was your work on this second job related to your first doctoral degree awarded in the U.S.? Was it . . .
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Closely related
2 [ ] Somewhat related
3 [ ] Not related

Questions A49-51 ask about your work for pay (or profit) in 1994

A49.
Turning now to 1994, including paid vacation and paid sick leave, how many weeks did you work in 1994?
IF NONE, MARK (X) THIS BOX 0 [ ] AND SKIP TO B1
Number of Weeks Worked ____________

A50.
During the weeks you worked in 1994, how many hours a week did you usually work?
Number of Hours Worked ____________

A51.
Counting all jobs held, what was your TOTAL EARNED income, BEFORE deductions for 1994?
Include all wages, salaries, bonuses, overtime, commissions, consulting fees, net income from business, summertime teaching or research, post doctoral appointment, or other work associated with scholarships
$__________________________________.00
Total 1994 Earned Income
IF YOU HAD NO EARNED INCOME IN 1994, MARK (X) THIS BOX 0 [ ]

PART B - Past Employment

The next few questions will help us better understand employment changes over time.

B1.
Were you working for pay (or profit) during BOTH of these time periods--the week of April 15, 1993, AND the week of April 15, 1995?
If you were a STUDENT: Do NOT count financial aid awards with no work requirement
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to Part C, page 9)

B2.
(IF YES) During these two time periods--the week of April 15, 1993, and the week of April 15, 1995--were you working for . . .
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Same employer AND same job (SKIP to Part C, page 9)
2 [ ] Same employer BUT different job
3 [ ] Different employer BUT same job
4 [ ] Different employer AND different job

B3.
(IF DIFFERENT) Why did you change your employer or your job?
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. Pay, promotion opportunities
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. Working conditions (hours, equipment, working environment)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. Job location
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

4. Change in career or professional interests
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

5. Family-related reasons (e.g., children, spouse's job moved)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

6. School-related reasons (e.g., returned to school, completed a degree)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

7. Laid off or job terminated (includes company closings, mergers, buyouts)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

8. Retired
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

9. Other - Specify: __________________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

PART C - Other Work-Related Information

The next few questions ask about your work experience since completing your (first) doctoral degree.

C1.
Please review the JOB CATEGORIES LIST on pages 16-17. Using that list, please record codes in Column 1 for those job categories where you have had ONE OR MORE YEARS OF WORK EXPERIENCE since completing your (first) doctoral degree (a single job category code can represent several jobs). Next, complete Columns 2-5 for each job category recorded in Column 1.

Example: Chris was a regional sales director for a computer hardware company between 1980 and 1986. In 1986 she was offered a job teaching marketing at a local college, something she had always wanted to try and that would allow more time with her family. Between 1986 and 1995, she had taught at three different colleges. Chris would enter:

Row Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5
First 141 Sales Director, computer hardware company 1980-1986 6 years 3,4
Second 274 Professor – Marketing 1986-1995 9 years 9

WORK EXPERIENCE SINCE (FIRST) BACHELOR'S DEGREE



REASONS FOR LEAVING (for use in Column 5 above)

1. Pay, promotion, benefits
2. Working conditions (hours, equipment, working environment)
3. Change in career/professional interests
4. Family (children, spouse's job moved)
5. School (completed degree, returned to school, etc.)
6. Did not enjoy the work
7. Job ended/suitable job in my field not available
8. Retired
9. Still working in that field
10. Other – specify above

C2.
Since completing your (first) doctoral degree, have you had any periods of 6 months or more where you were not working?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to C4)

C3.
(IF YES) Please provide the following information for each period of 6 months or longer. Your best guess is fine.
(IF YES) Please provide the following information for each period of 6 months or longer. Your best guess is fine.
DATES NOT WORKING, followed by REASONS FOR NOT WORKING – Mark (x) all that apply
FROM
Month Year
1. ___ ___ 19 ___ ___
1 [ ] Retired
2 [ ] Lay off/Job ended (Company Closed
3 [ ] Full-Time Student, Not working
4 [ ] Family responsibilities
5 [ ] Chronic Illness or Permanent Disability
6 [ ] Suitable Job Not Available
7 [ ] Did Not Need or Want to Work
8 [ ] Other

2. ___ ___ 19 ___ ___
1 [ ] Retired
2 [ ] Lay off/Job ended (Company Closed
3 [ ] Full-Time Student, Not working
4 [ ] Family responsibilities
5 [ ] Chronic Illness or Permanent Disability
6 [ ] Suitable Job Not Available
7 [ ] Did Not Need or Want to Work
8 [ ] Other

3. ___ ___ 19 ___ ___
1 [ ] Retired
2 [ ] Lay off/Job ended (Company Closed
3 [ ] Full-Time Student, Not working
4 [ ] Family responsibilities
5 [ ] Chronic Illness or Permanent Disability
6 [ ] Suitable Job Not Available
7 [ ] Did Not Need or Want to Work
8 [ ] Other

C4.
How much would your work benefit from each of the following?
Mark (X) one for each
1. Long distance communications with colleagues outside the U.S. (e.g., by letter, telephone, e-mail, fax, etc.)
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

2. Short-term visits to non-U.S. locations (days or weeks in duration)
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

3. Long-term visit to non-U.S. locations (6 months to 1 or 2 years in duration)
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

C5.
Since completing your doctorate, have you ever traveled outside the United States to work or conduct research in your field?
DO NOT include international conferences.
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to C7)

C6.
(IF YES) How long was your last trip outside the United States to work or conduct research?
1 [ ] Less than 7 days (SKIP to C8, page 11)
2 [ ] 7 to 30 days (SKIP to C8, page 11)
3 [ ] 1 to 6 months (SKIP to C8, page 11)
4 [ ] More than 6 months (SKIP to C8, page 11)

C7.
(IF NO) Why haven't you worked or conducted research outside the United States?
Mark (X) all that apply
1 [ ] Not relevant to my career
2 [ ] No interest
3 [ ] No time
4 [ ] Unable to identify host institution
5 [ ] Concerned about losing my place in U.S. job market
6 [ ] Unaware of funding sources
7 [ ] Lack of foreign language skills
8 [ ] Family-related reasons
9 [ ] Other - Specify: ___________________________________

C8.
Since completing your (first) doctoral degree how many "postdocs," if any, have you held? A "postdoc" (postdoctoral appointment) is a temporary position awarded in academe, industry, or government primarily for gaining additional education and training in research.
NUMBER: ________
OR IF NONE, MARK THIS BOX 0 [ ] AND SKIP TO C12

C9.
Please provide the following information for each postdoc recorded in C8. Please include any postdoc you might currently hold.


MOST RECENT OR CURRENT POSTDOC

A. Date postdoc started and ended (or you left) IF CURRENTLY IN POSTDOC: Enter "00" for year ended
Started:
Month ___ ___ Year 19 ___ ___
Ended:
Month ___ ___ Year 19 ___ ___

B. What was your primary reason for taking this postdoc? Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Additional training in PhD field
2 [ ] Training in an area outside of PhD field
3 [ ] Work with a specific person or place
4 [ ] Other employment not available
5 [ ] Other – Specify: _______________________

C. In what field were you working? Please be as specific as possible
_________________________________________
_________________________________________

D. Which sector BEST describes where you worked... Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Educational institution?
2 [ ] Business/Industry?
3 [ ] Government (any level)?
4 [ ] Other – Specify: ____________________________

E. for this postdoc, did you receive...
Health benefits?
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

Pension benefits?
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

F. Was this postdoc the result of winning a national competition?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

SECOND MOST RECENT POSTDOC

A. Date postdoc started and ended (or you left) IF CURRENTLY IN POSTDOC: Enter "00" for year ended
Started:
Month ___ ___ Year 19 ___ ___
Ended:
Month ___ ___ Year 19 ___ ___

B. What was your primary reason for taking this postdoc? Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Additional training in PhD field
2 [ ] Training in an area outside of PhD field
3 [ ] Work with a specific person or place
4 [ ] Other employment not available
5 [ ] Other – Specify: _______________________

C. In what field were you working? Please be as specific as possible
_________________________________________
_________________________________________

D. Which sector BEST describes where you worked... Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Educational institution?
2 [ ] Business/Industry?
3 [ ] Government (any level)?
4 [ ] Other – Specify: ____________________________

E. for this postdoc, did you receive...
Health benefits?
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

Pension benefits?
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

F. Was this postdoc the result of winning a national competition?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

THIRD MOST RECENT POSTDOC

A. Date postdoc started and ended (or you left) IF CURRENTLY IN POSTDOC: Enter "00" for year ended
Started:
Month ___ ___ Year 19 ___ ___
Ended:
Month ___ ___ Year 19 ___ ___

B. What was your primary reason for taking this postdoc? Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Additional training in PhD field
2 [ ] Training in an area outside of PhD field
3 [ ] Work with a specific person or place
4 [ ] Other employment not available
5 [ ] Other – Specify: _______________________

C. In what field were you working? Please be as specific as possible
_________________________________________
_________________________________________

D. Which sector BEST describes where you worked... Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Educational institution?
2 [ ] Business/Industry?
3 [ ] Government (any level)?
4 [ ] Other – Specify: ____________________________

E. for this postdoc, did you receive...
Health benefits?
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

Pension benefits?
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

F. Was this postdoc the result of winning a national competition?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

C10.
Was your principal job during the week of April 15 a postdoc position?
1 [ ] Yes (SKIP to C12)
2 [ ] No

C11.
How relevant was your (most recent) postdoc to your work on your principal job held during the week of April 15?
IF NOT WORKING FOR PAY OR PROFIT THE WEEK OF APRIL 15: Use your "last job"
Mark (X) one for each
1. Subject matter knowledge or expertise?
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

2. Use of specific skills or techniques?
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

3. Contacts established with colleagues in your field?
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

4. Use of specialized equipment?
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

5. General approach or problem solving skills?
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

6. Something else? - Specify: ____________________________
1 [ ] A Great Deal 2 [ ] Somewhat 3 [ ] Not at all

C12.
During the past year, did you attend any professional society or association meetings or conferences?
Include regional, national, or international meetings
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

C13.
To how many national or international professional societies or associations do you currently belong?
Number |___|___| OR [ ] NONE

C14.
During the past year, did you attend any WORK-RELATED workshops, seminars, or other work-related training activities?
Do NOT include college courses - these will be discussed in PART D
Do NOT include professional meetings unless you attended a special training session conducted at the meeting/conference
1 [ ] Yes (GO to C15)
2 [ ] No (SKIP to part D, page 13)

C15.
(IF YES) During the past year, in which of the following areas did you attend work-related workshops, seminars, or other work-related training activities?
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. Management or supervisor training
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. Training in your occupational field
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. General professional training (e.g., public speaking, business writing)
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

4. Other work-related training - Specify: __________________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

C16.
For which of the following reasons did you attend training activities during the past year?
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. To facilitate a change in your occupational field
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. To gain FURTHER skills or knowledge in your occupational field
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. For licensure/certification
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

4. To increase opportunities for promotion/advancement/higher salary
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

5. To learn skills or knowledge needed for a recently acquired position
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

6. Required or expected by employer
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

7. Other - Specify: __________________________________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

C17.
What was your most important reason for attending training activities? Enter number of appropriate REASON from C16 above
|___| MOST IMPORTANT REASON from C16

PART D - Background Information

D1.
Between April 1993 and April 1995, did you take any college or university courses or enroll in a college or university for other reasons, such as completing another Master's or PhD?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to D10, page 14)

D2.
(IF YES) In which college or university department were you primarily taking classes or doing research, etc. (e.g., English, chemistry)?
DEPARTMENT: _______________________________________________

D3.
Between April 1993 and April 1995, did you complete a degree or certificate?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No (SKIP to D7)

D4.
(IF YES) In what month and year was this degree or certificate awarded?
IF YOU COMPLETED MORE THAN ONE: Enter the date for the highest degree or certificate awarded
Month |___|___| Year 19 |___|___|

D5.
What type of degree or certificate did you receive?
IF MORE THAN ONE APPLIES: Mark the highest level
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Bachelor's degree
2 [ ] Post baccalaureate certificate
3 [ ] Master's degree (including MBA)
4 [ ] Post master's certificate
5 [ ] Doctorate
6 [ ] Other professional degree (e.g., JD, LLB, THD, MD, DDS, etc.)
7 [ ] Other - Specify: ______________________________________

D6.
From which academic institution did you receive this degree or certificate?
School name: _____________________________________
City/Town: _______________________________________
State/Foreign country: ______________________________

D7.
What was your primary field of study during that time?
IF NO PRIMARY FIELD OF STUDY, MARK (X) THIS BOX 0 [ ]
Primary Field of Study: ________________________________

D8.
For which of the following reasons were you taking classes or enrolled between April 1993 and April 1995?
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. To gain further education before beginning a career
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. To prepare for graduate school
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. To change your academic or occupational field
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

4. To gain FURTHER skills or knowledge in your academic or occupational field
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

5. For licensure/certification
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

6. To increase opportunities for promotion/advancement/higher salary
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

7. Required or expected by employer
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

8. For leisure/personal interest
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

9. Other - Specify: __________________________________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

D9.
Were ANY of your school-related costs for taking college or university courses during this time paid for by an employer?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No

D10.
As of the week of April 15 were you...
Mark (X) one
1 [ ] Married
2 [ ] Widowed (SKIP to D13)
3 [ ] Separated (SKIP to D13)
4 [ ] Divorced (SKIP to D13)
5 [ ] Never Married (SKIP to D13)

D11.
(IF MARRIED) During the week of April 15, was your spouse working for pay (or profit) at a full-time or part-time job?
1 [ ] Yes, full-time
2 [ ] Yes, part-time
3 [ ] No (SKIP to D13)

D12.
(IF YES) Did your spouse's duties on this job require the technical expertise of a bachelor's degree or higher in . . .
Mark (X) Yes or No for each
1. Engineering, computer science, math or the natural sciences,
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

2. The social sciences,
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

3. Some other field (e.g., health or business) - Specify: ____________________________
1 [ ] Yes 2 [ ] No

D13.
During the week of April 15, did you have any children living with you as part of your family?
Only count children who lived with you at least 50 percent of the time
1 [ ] Yes (GO to D14)
2 [ ] No (SKIP to D15)

D14.
(IF YES) How many of these children living with you as part of your family were...
IF NO CHILDREN IN A CATEGORY, enter "0"
_____ 1. Under age 2
_____ 2. Aged 2-5
_____ 3. Aged 6-11
_____ 4. Aged 12-17
_____ 5. Aged 18 or older

D15.
During the week of April 15, 1995, were you living in the United States or one of its territories, or were you living in another country?
1 [ ] United States or one of its territories
2 [ ] Another country

D16.
As of the week of April 15, 1995 were you a . . .
Mark (X) one
U.S. Citizen
1 [ ] Native Born (SKIP to D18)
2 [ ] Naturalized (SKIP to D18)

Non-U.S. Citizen
3 [ ] With a Permanent U.S. Resident Visa
4 [ ] With a Temporary U.S. Resident Visa
5 [ ] Living outside the United States

D17.
(IF NON-U.S. CITIZEN) Of which country are you a citizen?
COUNTRY: ______________________________

D18.
What is your birthdate?
Month: |___|___| Day: |___|___| Year: 19 |___|___|

The next question is designed to help us better understand the career paths of individuals with different physical abilities.

D19.
What is the USUAL degree of difficulty you have with...
MARK (X) ONE FOR EACH
1. SEEING words or letters in ordinary newsprint (with glasses/contact lenses if you usually wear them)
1 [ ] None 2 [ ] Slight 3 [ ] Moderate 4 [ ] Severe 5 [ ] Unable to Do

2. HEARING what is normally said in conversation with another person (with hearing aid, if you usually wear one)
1 [ ] None 2 [ ] Slight 3 [ ] Moderate 4 [ ] Severe 5 [ ] Unable to Do

3. WALKING without human or mechanical assistance or using stairs
1 [ ] None 2 [ ] Slight 3 [ ] Moderate 4 [ ] Severe 5 [ ] Unable to Do

4. LIFTING or carrying something as heavy as 10 pounds, such as a bag of groceries
1 [ ] None 2 [ ] Slight 3 [ ] Moderate 4 [ ] Severe 5 [ ] Unable to Do

D20.
If you answered "none" TO ALL ACTIVITIES in D19, mark (X) this box 0 [ ] and SKIP to D22


D21.
What is the earliest age at which you FIRST began experiencing ANY difficulties in any of these areas?
AGE: |___|___| OR 0 [ ] SINCE BIRTH

D22.
In case we need to clarify some of the information you have provided, please list a phone number where you can be reached.
Daytime:
|__|__|__|-|__|__|__|-|__|__|__|__|
Area Code Number
Evening:
|__|__|__|-|__|__|__|-|__|__|__|__|
Area Code Number

D23.
Since we are interested in how education and employment change over time, we may be recontacting you in 1997. To help us find you, please provide the name, address, and telephone number of two people who are likely to know where you can be reached. DO NOT INCLUDE SOMEONE WHO LIVES IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD
As with all the information provided in this questionnaire, complete confidentiality will be provided. These people will only be contacted if we cannot find you in 1997
____________________________________________
Name
____________________________________________
Number and Street
_________________________|_______|___________
City/Town State Zip Code
____________________________________________
Country (If outside U.S.)
|___|___|___|-|___|___|___|-|___|___|___|___|
Area Code Number
____________________________________________
Name
____________________________________________
Number and Street
_________________________|_______|___________
City/Town State Zip Code
____________________________________________
Country (If outside U.S.)
|___|___|___|-|___|___|___|-|___|___|___|___|
Area Code Number

D24.
PLEASE TURN TO THE BACK COVER FOR THE LAST QUESTION (D25).

D25.
Is the name and address information on the label the best one for us to use for any future mailings?
1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No - Please make name and address changes as needed below. Please print clearly.

Title: ____________ First name: ____________ Middle initial ____ Last name: _______________
Number and street: _________________ Apartment number: ____ City and town: _________ State: ___ ZIP Code: ____

THANK YOU FOR COMPLETING THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Please return the completed form in the envelope provided. If you lose the envelope and want another, call 1-800-248-8649. Our address is:

National Research Council
TJ 1021
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20418